contemporary Carnatic music, refers to the five kinds of Laghus
used in Talas. There are five of these –Chaturasra (4 counts), Tisra
(3 counts), Misra (7 counts), Khanda (5 counts) and Sankeerna (9
counts). Thus, the application of these five kinds to the 7 basic Talas
results in 35 Tala
system. In the Natya
Sastra, the term is used as a melodic attribute, but this had
already gone out of vogue during the time of Matanga. See also Brihaddesi.
water waves. Name of a musical instrument, consisting of china cups
filled to varying levels with water. The water level is adjusted to tune
each cup to a specific note. The rim of the cup is struck with sticks
after tuning, to give a pleasant ringing sound. This is often used in
small ensembles and for orchestral support. The dexterity to play this
instrument is one of the traditionally enumerated 64 arts.
parent raga. The three conditions for a parent Raga
are - it should be Sampoorna
in both ascent and descent, employing seven notes; it should not have
any zig-zag patterns (Vakratva)
in it; and the ascent and descent should use the same set of seven
notes. There are 72 Janaka
See also Melakarta.
classification of Ragas
into parent and derivative ragas, analogous to the genus-species system
of classification. See Janaka
note that is repeated twice, e.g. Sa-Sa, Ri-Ri, Ga-Ga etc. These are
part of the scale exercises taught to the beginning student.
that is derived from a parent scale, by either omitting notes from the
parent scale, or by introducing a zig-zag pattern, or by adding alien
notes that are not present in the original parent scale.
|Pronounced with a short a
– the syllables used to count rhythmic patterns, e.g. tari kita naka
composition that used only the Sa Ri Ga notation for the notes and
rhythmic syllables like tari taka, ta-din-gin-na-tom etc. It has no
words, but there are the usual Pallavi,
divisions. Widely used in dance recitals.
Kannada word, meaning an earthy and sensuous erotic song. It is
distinguished from the Padams,
in which love and erotic sentiment is treated with more gravity. In Javali,
love is light, provocative, flippant and sometimes even lewd and bawdy.
It is usually set to bright and attractive tunes in well-known Ragas,
and sung in medium or slow tempo.
rhythmic instrument. See Morsing.
life. Also known as Jawari.
It is the fine thread that is inserted between the bridge and the
strings of the Tambura.
The sound texture and quality are enriched by this means, giving the Tambura
the enveloping sound that is vital to the performance of music.
note that imparts the central character to the Raga.
This could be the same as a Nyasa
of the Raga,
though not necessarily so.
Hindustani music, a rendition of an Alapa
with an inbuilt Laya
and rendered in the medium tempo. This is performed principally on
instruments and in the nom tom alap of dhammar and dhrupad. This is
similar to the Tanam
singing in Carnatic music.
performance of two instrument players or singers. It spaces out a
performance, dividing its progressions in a shared manner. In the
Carnatic tradition, this is termed Jodippattu.